The scientific results extracted from many Cray C-90 hours at Pittsburgh
Supercomputing Center may be summarised as follows:
- Flow topology.
Flow divided into laminar, cellular network at the surface, with general
turbulence in the interior punctuated by coherent downflows.
- Surface time-dependence.
Laminar surface topology is changed significantly with the
addition of rotation: more curvaceous, more time-dependent, different
cell formation mechanisms.
- Vortex tubes.
Underlying turbulence characterised by vortex tube-like structures.
Coherent structures are strong vortices covering a significant depth,
originating at the surface downflow interstices. Interior turbulence is
small-scale random tubes.
- Vortex mixing.
Rotation enhances the mixing properties of the flow, affecting the
thermodynamics of the layer and the degree of isotropy of the
Coherent structures exist and can be influenced by moderate-strong
rotation: strong vortex structures representing the coherent downflows can
adopt the tilt of the rotation vector if the rotation is sufficiently
strong. This tilting mechanism is distinctly different from laminar
- Mean flows.
Mean meridional and zonal flows can thus be generated by the rotation
from the correlations of vertical and horizontal velocity inherent in
the aligned and tilted structures.
- Mean flows.
The means exhibit some of the features of the observed solar rotation
for certain parameters, such as a constant-with-radius interior ...
- Spiral mean flows.
... and spiralling of the mean flow vectors with depth.
For further illumination, you could peruse some pertinent